A Mieloencefalomielite Protozoária Equina (EPM) se dá pela ingestão de protozoários através do alimento e ataca o sistema nervoso central dos cavalos

È uma doença infecto-contagiosa que acomete o sistema nervoso central de equinos causada pelo protozoário Sarcocystis Neurona. A enfermidade acomete equídeos de qualquer idade, basta ocorrer à ingestão do protozoário através do alimento.

O ciclo se dá pela ingestão do protozoário que  ao chegar no trato intestinal, penetram nas células endoteliais dos vasos atravessando a barreira hematoencefálica instalando-se no Sistema Nervoso Central.

Ciclo da EPM

O tronco cerebral e a medula espinhal são dois dos principais locais de alojamento do protozoário, causando um processo degenerativo podendo ser  de forma focal, multifocal ou difuso, ocorrendo necrose ou malacia dos tecidos, onde caracteriza-se como processo inflamatório na substância branca e cinzenta.

Apresenta sinais clínicos de neurológicos como fraqueza, facilidade em tropeçar no solo, arrastar as pinças, espasticidade uni ou bilateral nos membros, fazendo com que ocorra incordenação  e desequilíbrio, popularmente conhecida como bambeira.

Atrofias musculares também ocorrem devido a desuso de determinados grupos musculares, principalmente os glúteos e quadríceps.

A realização de um diagnóstico efetivo baseia-se na anamnese e exame clinico do sistema nervoso, observando os sinais neurológicos, notando a perda da coordenação motora e inicio da atrofia dos grupos musculares principalmente dos membros posteriores.

O exame complementar “immunoblot” do soro e do liquido cefalorraquidiano são utilizados para detecção de anticorpos antiproteína do protozoário Sarcocystis neurona. A solicitação da dosagem de IgG e a dosagem de Albumina  ajudam na certeza do diagnóstico certificando que realmente ocorreu a produção intratecal de anticorpos pela presença do protozoário no SNC.

Como forma de tratamento é instituído a administração de inibidores da enzima dihidrofulatoredutase ( pirimetaminas e sulfonamidas). Antiinflamatórios como flunixin meglumine e Dimetilsulfóxido também são utilizados no combate ao processo inflamatório presente no SNC, a suplementação vitamina com ácido fólico, B1, B6, B12 e Vitamina C, devem ser administradas juntamente com pastas a base de anticoccidiostáticos (Diclazuril).

Deve-se manter o animal alojado em baia ampla, arejada e com calma alta evitando escoriações. Alguns animais chegam a atingir situações de decúbito por  um certo tempo, principalmente em inicio de tratamento, dependendo o grau de contaminação pelo protozoário.

Como método preventivo devemos manter a higiene em comedouros e bebedouros, assim como controlar os vetores e hospedeiros intermediários quebrando assim o ciclo epidemiológico da doença.

Serviço: Dr. Evaldo Dias Rosa, Médico Veterinário de Equinos

Contatos: (19) 98355-2533/(19) 97827-2961

Escrito por : Dr. Evaldo Dias Rosa, Médico Veterinário de Equinos

Foto por : Foto cedida

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