Regiões do Corpo, Centro de Gravidade, Aprumos, Cascos.

 Seguindo a linha dos assuntos que abordamos em artigos anteriores, onde falamos sobre comportamento animal, conformação e conceito da raça, nesse texto vou abordar como entender melhor o Quarto de Milha. Para começar, vamos conhecer as regiões do corpo do cavalo, as nomenclaturas e em seguida abordar sobre equilíbrio, centro de gravidade, aprumos e dinâmica de locomoção.

Regiões do Corpo

 Equilíbrio e Balanceamento
Nesta fase vamos começar avaliando a estrutura óssea, estrutura muscular e outros tecidos.

Esqueleto do cavalo

Musculatura do Cavalo

Sistema circulatório do cavalo

O cavalo equilibrado é observado, como já dissemos anteriormente, e se enquadra dentro de um quadrado que podemos também subdividir em três partes: Desde a ponta da escápula até a ponta da cernelha; desde a cernelha até o início da garupa; comprimento da garupa.

Centro de Gravidade do Cavalo

Um ponto importante a ser observado é o Centro de Gravidade do Cavalo. A posição do centro de gravidade e a distribuição do peso do corpo sobre os membros locomotores variam nos diversos indivíduos, segundo sua conformação, suas atitudes e seus andamentos. Levando em consideração o cavalo na posição estática (parado), a simples observação nos leva a verificar a existência de uma força que, atuando sobre o corpo (Força da Gravidade), impedindo a sua queda, verificando-se desta forma o centro de gravidade.

Conformação dos Membros – Aprumos

O cavalo deve ser observado a distância, assim como de perto. Devem ser observados ao repouso e em movimento. Devem ser adequados à altura, a espessura e ao comprimento do corpo. O impulso dos membros posteriores afeta os membros anteriores, portanto, uma conformação geral harmônica é muito importante.

Uma má conformação dos membros locomotores (aprumos irregulares) não é por si só uma doença, todavia, pode ser considerado um aviso de fraqueza, de claudicação (manqueira), que não ocorreriam se tivesse uma boa conformação. O cavalo deve ser observado também em movimento para ser melhor estudada a sua dinâmica de locomoção.

Cascos

O casco é o estojo córneo que recobre a parte terminal do membro locomotor do cavalo, sendo que os anteriores são maiores e mais oblíquos do que os cascos posteriores. O casco possui uma completa estrutura anatômica para que, durante toda a vida do animal, seja capaz de sustentar e atenuar as pressões e reações dos movimentos dos equinos. O exame frequente dos cascos e sua manutenção irá auxiliar seu perfeito desenvolvimento. O casco dos equinos é composto, basicamente, pela parede ou muralha, sola e ranilha, como pode ser observado na foto.

Partes anatômicas dos cascos
Estrutura óssea e circulação sanguínea

Casqueamento mal feito pode prejudicar seriamente o andamento e a funcionalidade de qualquer cavalo além de aumentar os riscos de lesões, principalmente, quando as estruturas e o ângulo dos cascos em relação às partes do cavalo não são respeitados. Alterações na conformação natural dos cascos podem alterar o andamento correto do animal.

O completo exame do casco equino constitui procedimento essencial do exame clínico e da avaliação da claudicação. Como os problemas do casco são a causa mais comum de claudicação, o proprietário precisa ter um conhecimento razoável da anatomia, função e equilíbrio do casco. O equilíbrio refere-se não apenas à aparência do casco, mas também à sua interação dinâmica com a superfície.

Para manter os cascos equilibrados, é importante verificar: o comprimento da pinça; o ângulo do casco; a orientação médio-lateral; O contorno da parede e superfície de apoio e a simetria dos cascos contralaterais.

Nosso próximo artigo terá como tema: Dinâmica de Locomoção Equina. Obrigado e até lá!

Por Roger Clark – Médico Veterinário
Juiz e Inspetor Zootécnico ABQM e ABC PAINT | Consultor em Comportamento e Bem-Estar Animal
Fotos: arquivo pessoal

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